VIII.4: Thomas Jefferson Fought Against Judicial Review

Thomas Jefferson was not involved in writing the U.S. Constitution, as he was America’s ambassador to France at the time. But later he worked against the Federalists, who wrote the Constitution. Judicial review was not a part of the Constitution. But it was supported by Alexander Hamilton (See my earlier post) in the Federalist Papers. … Read more

VII.3: Anti-Federalist Predictions against the Constitution

In 1787, the U.S. Constitution was written, but not without a fight. That is, many of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention opposed it. But in the end the majority decided what it would say. That majority group became known as the Federalists. And those who opposed them became known as Anti-Federalists. Moreover, there were … Read more

VI.1: The Fight over the US Constitution

The Articles of Confederation acted as a “federal constitution” for the original thirteen American states, but it had no enforcing power. The story of the fight over the US Constitution begins after the War for Independence. At that time, the state governments ignored the Articles of Confederation. In fact, they refused to cooperate on much … Read more

V.2: Government by the Masses or by Experts?

America’s founders expected the nation to have government by the masses and by experts at the same time. They looked for a “natural aristocracy” to lead the nation. That phrase means the natural leaders of society. They expected those leaders to take a few weeks or months each year away from their farms, law practices, … Read more