IX.6: What Are the Origins of Anti-Semitism?

Jews are called Semites because, according to the Bible, they descended from Shem, one of Noah’s three sons. There are many groups and individuals who believe that Jewish people control the economic systems of the developed world. Conspiracy theories declare that they are planning to dominate mankind. For example, both white (KKK) and black (Nation … Read more

IX.5: The Genius of Henry David Thoreau

Thoreau was a unique American whose philosophical writings have heavily influenced movers and shakers throughout the globe. Henry David Thoreau has influenced everyone from Mahatma Ghandi to Leo Tolstoy to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He was an avid abolitionist, a passionate naturalist, a contemplative philosopher, a brilliant essayist, a diligent student of the human … Read more

IX.4: Could America Have Avoided the Civil War?

Two of the most horrific episodes in U.S. history were the abuse of Africans through slavery, and the widespread death and destruction of America’s Civil War. We have no record of how many slaves died chained in ships lost at sea or at the hands of cruel masters. But there’s no doubt many were victims … Read more

IX.3: American and European Republican Traditions

The word “republic” refers to a society that operates for the good of the public. Philip Petit describes the origins of the American and European republican traditions. He says America’s republic is based on what he calls the “Italian-Atlantic” republican tradition. Based on the writings of Aristotle and Polybius, Machiavelli developed the “Italian” part of … Read more

IX.2: John Adams, the Almost Forgotten Founder

Most Americans know very little about John Adams, the second U.S. President. Mount Rushmore contains colossal carvings of America’s first and third presidents, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. And our fourth president, James Madison, holds the honorable title of “the father of the Constitution”. But our second president, John Adams, is the almost forgotten founder. … Read more

IX.1: One Nation or Thirteen Nations?

In the War for Independence, America’s treasury and military were tiny compared to Great Britain. From her start, was America one nation or thirteen nations? How did the thirteen original colonies unite to match the power of the British? In fact, it was only by at least four strokes of incredible luck (or you could … Read more